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1) An igneous rock that forms from long slow cooling will be characterized by no crystallization


1) An igneous rock that forms from long, slow cooling will be characterized by

no crystallization

well-rounded pebble-size sediments

large, well-defined crystals

small crystals aligned in parallel bands

2)Changes to rock over large, wide areas are most likely due to contact metamorphism.



3) By which principle do we know that the rock layers on each side of the valley were originally joined together?

4) Fossils can tell us what types of organisms lived where but they cannot be used to study other factors such as climate or geography.TrueFalse

5) Which of the following terms best describes the nucleus of a radioactive element?





6) Patterns in tree rings most often represent

climatic conditions in which the tree grew

the age of the forest in which the tree grew

the specific type of tree species

the presence or absence of insect pests in the forest

7) According to the fossil record, when did anatomically recognizable humans appear on Earth?

2 million years ago

200 thousand years ago

20 thousand years ago

12 thousand years ago


Coal and oil shale are formed by

the accumulation of sediments from basaltic rocks

the decay of sea animals that lived near the ocean surface

the remains of ancient sea animals that lived at the ocean floor

the remains of ancient plants that were compacted and subjected to heat

9) Which type of sedimentary rock is characterized by very fine-sized (less than 0.002 mm) clastic particles?





10) Tectonic plates are able to move because of

sliding of the continents toward the oceans

gravitational differences between different parts of the Earth as it revolves around the Sun

relatively dense oceanic crust sinking into the weak asthenosphere at subduction zones

the sinking of the continents into oceanic crust at the mid-ocean ridge

11) Continental crust is younger than oceanic crust because it is constantly recycled by subduction processes.