According to Larzelere’s findings, whether children experience negative or positive outcomes due to their upbringing depends on the rate of recurrence of any disciplinary approach. This includes all types and does not single-out corporal punishment. Consequently, it is excessive recurrences of bad behaviour that is the root-cause of negative outcomes. Parents understand that recurring bad behaviour will hamper their child’s chances for a successful life as an adult and feel compelled to diminish poor behavioural patterns with disciplinary techniques they believe to be most effective. What parents need is quality information regarding methods by which to effectively discipline their children. Effective punishment techniques are established on the basis of a relationship between the parent and child that is positive and loving. The punishment methods are proactive but measured and administered with competency. When acting in response to bad behaviour, parents should apply mild corrective actions such as reasoning, grounding and time-out. Smacking is most effective when used to re-enforce these mild corrective actions. Studies have demonstrated that smacking is not merely effective on its own merits alone but it serves to increase the chance that the child will respond to the mild corrective tactics. As a consequence, smacking is needed less to control behaviour as the child grows older. “Spanking has consistently beneficial outcomes when it is non-abusive and used primarily to back up milder disciplinary tactics with 2- to 6-year-olds by loving parents.